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Get started with the technical concepts

To get the most out of the Cardano Developer Portal, you should have programming experience and a basic understanding of blockchain concepts such as UTxO, transactions, addresses, key derivation, and networking.

Introduction to Cardano: the big picture

Learn fundamental terms like blockchain, consensus, decentralization delegation and incentives. Understand the big picture of Cardano and why stake pools are so important.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTxO)

UTxO or Unspent Transaction Outputs are how ada moves around the Cardano network. Learn how they work in the Cardano ledger.


Learn what is inside the guts of a Cardano transaction. We show how unsigned and signed transactions look like, and we cover how signing works.


Cardano Addresses are used as destinations to send ada on the blockchain. We break them down into their parts and show how they're created.

Transaction Fees

Understand how transaction fees are calculated on Cardano. Brief coverage of the topics reserve and treasury.

Mnemonic seed phrase (BIP39)

BIP39 is the standard for creating a mnemonic seed phrase for wallets. In this video, we break down how it's created from randomness on Cardano.

Key Derivation

Key Derivation is the process a wallet uses to go from a mnemonic phrase to a whole set of keys and addresses that the wallet controls.

Block and transaction propagation

Learn how transactions make it from the mempool into blocks and how blocks move around the network.


We answer your questions about how nodes on Cardano talk to each other. Learn about TCP Sockets, mini-protocols and the future of P2P.

Cardano Improvement Proposals (CIP)

The Cardano Improvement Proposal (CIP) process allows the community to interact with the Cardano Foundation to improve the Cardano ecosystem in a formal way.

Slot Lottery

In this video, we describe exactly how a stake pool on Cardano gets elected to make a block.

Slot Battles

On Cardano, slot battles happen when two pools try to make a block in the same slot (at the same time). We break down how the blockchain determines which block should win and what is the "correct" source of truth on the blockchain.

Catalyst Voting

What is Catalyst voting, how to register, how to vote and why you should participate.

Franken Addresses

Franken Addresses are a way to register additional pledge to a pool without registering a second owner on the blockchain.


Non-Fungible Tokens on cardano are native assets that represent immutable art or physical things.

Catalyst Voting Registration

How does the Catalyst voting registration on the side-chain work?

Epoch Nonce

The epoch nonce allows you to calculate leaderlogs for your stake pool on Cardano.

Guaranteed Transaction Delivery

How dropped transactions happen on cardano and how to ensure we always deliver them into blocks.

SundaeSwap & Merkel Trees

Learn about the SundaeSwap ISO and who Merkel Trees work.

DripDropz & Phyrhose

DripDropz, the token AirDrop vending machine, powered by Phyrhose.

P2P Networking

Learn about Byron era network, Shelley era network, unidirectional (Half-Duplex) connections, the Topology Updater, manual P2P vs. automatic P2P.

TPS vs. eUTxO

Which is better, high transactions per second or eUTxO?


Learn about the new LocalTxMonitor miniprotocol in cardano-node.

Network Congestion

How does network congestion happen? What are mempool errors?


What is multisig? And how does it work on Cardano?

JorManager 6

Learn about what's new in the Cardano stake pool management software JorManager 6.

How to create a FT on Cardano that doesn't completely suck!

Learn how to create fungible tokens on Cardano using StakePool Operator Scripts.

Governance Snapshots

Learn how to take blockchain snapshots for Governance voting purposes.

Djed Stablecoin

Learn a little bit about the Algorithmic stablecoin Djed coming to Cardano.

Genesis Key Delegation

Learn about how Genesis Keys work on cardano and how they are delegated.

Music NFTs

Learn and dive into CIP-60 which is the Music NFT metadata standard on Cardano.

Pointer Addresses

Learn and dive into CPS-0002 which focuses on Pointer Addresses.


Learn about Kogmios, a Kotlin library for communicating with Ogmios.


Learn about Aiken, a bespoke smart contract language for Cardano.

Voltaire Governance

Learn about the upcoming CIP-1694 and how voting and governance might work in the Voltaire era.

NEWM Catalyst F9 Update

Learn about projects from Catalyst Fund 9 and where they're at today.